Final Bibliography


(Please note that the citations below are for the our website,
if you wish to see the citations for our documentary, please click here.)

“Baffle Ball (Pinball).” TV Tropes. Accessed April 3, 2017.

BMI Gaming, “The History of Pinball Machines and Pintables,” accessed February 21, 2017,

Central Park Funland. Arcade Game Pricing. Accessed April 3, 2017.

Craven, Robert R.  “Billiards, Pool, and Snooker Terms in Everyday Use.” American Speech 55, no. 2 (Summer 1980): 93 – 100.

Frontiero, James J. Jr., 2014, LED pinball machine graphics display, U.S Patent 8,714,550 B2, issued May 6, 2014.

“Humpty Dumpty.” Internet Pinball Machine Database: Gottlieb ‘Humpty Dumpty’ Accessed April 3, 2017.

June, Laura,  “For Amusement Only: The life and death of the American Arcade,” The Verge. January 16, 2013. Accessed April 4, 2017.

Klein, Christopher. “That Time America Outlawed Pinball.” History In the Headlines. November 15, 2016.  Accessed April 4, 2017.

Kocurek, Carly A. Coin Operated Americans: Rebooting Boyhood at the Video Game Arcade. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Lifton, Dave. “The Day the Who (Reluctantly) Recorded ‘Pinball Wizard.’” Ultimate Classic Rock. February 7, 2015. Accessed April 3, 2017.

Masters, James. ‘Bagatelle – History and Useful Information.” The Online Guide to Traditional Games. 1997 – 2017. Web. Accessed March 16, 2017.

Nellum Technologies. ‘History of Billiards.’ The Billiard shop. 2017. Web. Accessed March 16, 2017.

Redgrave, Montague. 1871. Improvement in bagatelles. U.S Patent 115,357. Issued May 30, 1871.

Rubin, Peter. “Check Out this Glorious Colorful History of Arcade Games,” Wired. May 13, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2017.

Shakespeare, William. Cleopatra and Anthony. Spark Notes: No Fear Shakespeare. Accessed April 24, 2017.

Sherin, Rick. “A Mere Bagatelle: From Marbles to Pinballs and Beyond.” Play Stuff (blog). The Strong: National Museum of Play. January 13, 2014. Accessed March 16, 2017.,

Sternheimer, Karen. Pop Culture Panics: How Moral Crusaders Construct Meanings of Deviance and Delinquency. New York: Routledge, 2015,

Struthers, Ann. “God, Ronald Reagan, and the Cosmic Pinball Machine.” Minnesota Review 30, no. 1 (1988): 52 Project Muse.

The Billiard Shop. “History of Billiards (or Pool).” Accessed March 16, 2017,

Pacific Pinball. “The Invention of the Bumper.” Invention Bumper. Accessed April 03, 2017.

United States Croquet Association, “Croquet in America: From Backyard Game to Worldclass Sport,” accessed March 16, 2017,

Zackariasson, Peter and Timothy L. Wilson. “Paradigm Shifts in the Video Game Industry.” Competitiveness Review 20, no. 2 (2010): 139 – 151. ProQuest.


Baffle Ball, illustration, November 1931, from The Internet Pinball Database, accessed April 3, 2017,

D. Gottlieb & Co. Gottlieb Humpty Dumpty Pinball Machine, printed paperChicago:The Billboard, November 15, 1947. From The Strong: National Museum of Play, Video Games: More Electronic Games, accessed April 3, 2017,

Hanke, Fred. G. Penny Arcade, photograph. Pettis, Missouri. From Department of Agriculture, Missouri State Fair Collection. Missouri State Archives. Accessed April 25, 2017.

Howzit, Sam.  Arcade Games, photograph. Florida. June 10, 2013. from Flickr Creative Commons. Accessed April 25, 2017.

Magee, J. L. A little game of bagatelle, between Old Abe the rail splitter & Little Mac the gunboat general. (Cartoon).Philadelphia, PA, 1864. From Library of Congress. The Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana. Accessed February 21, 2017.


Stern Pinball, Stern X-Men Pinball Flyer, Printed Paper, National Museum of Play. Rochester, New York. Accessed April 3, 2017.

The Who, “Pinball Wizard,” YouTube video, 3:02, posted by Treestone Films, January 13, 2009. Accessed April 3, 2017.

Williams, Star Trek the Next Generation Pinball Flyer, printed paper, National Museum of Play. Rochester, New York. Accessed April 3, 2017.


Header Image

Wonderland Arcade, 1200 Grand Ave. Kansas City, Missouri. Photograph.  c1968. From National Archives and Records Administration: Civil Case Files, complied 1938 – 1985.,_1200_Grand_Ave._Kansas_City,_Missouri_-_NARA_-_283782.tif.